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                                PHILOSOPHY                                     PAPER-I Plato and Aristotle: Ideas; Substance; Form and M...

Philosophy Optional Syllabus


Plato and Aristotle: Ideas; Substance; Form and Matter; Causation; Actuality and Potentiality.
Rationalism (Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz): Cartesian Method and Certain Knowledge; Substance; God; Mind-Body Dualism; Determinism and Freedom.
Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley, Hume): Theory of Knowledge; Substance and Qualities; Self and God; Scepticism.
Kant: Possibility of Synthetic a priori Judgments; Space and Time; Categories; Ideas of Reason; Antinomies; Critique of Proofs for the Existence of God
Hegel: Dialectical Method; Absolute Idealism
Moore, Russell, and Early Wittgenstein: Defence of Commonsense; Refutation of Idealism; Logical Atomism; Logical Constructions; Incomplete Symbols; Picture Theory of Meaning; Saying and Showing.
Logical Positivism: Verification Theory of Meaning; Rejection of Metaphysics; Linguistic Theory of Necessary Propositions.
Later Wittgenstein: Meaning and Use; Language-games; Critique of Private Language.
Phenomenology (Husserl): Method; Theory of Essences; Avoidance of Psychologism.
Existentialism (Kierkegaard, Sartre, Heidegger): Existence and Essence; Choice, Responsibility, and Authentic Existence; Being-in-the-world and Temporality.
Quine and Strawson: Critique of Empiricism; Theory of Basic Particulars and Persons.
Carvaka: Theory of Knowledge; Rejection of Transcendent Entities.
Jainism: Theory of Reality; Saptabhaoginaya; Bondage and Liberation.
Schools of Buddhism: Pratityasamutpada; Ksanikavada, Nairatmyavada
Nyaya- Vaiuesika: Theory of Categories; Theory of Appearance; Theory of Pramsna; Self, Liberation; God; Proofs for the Existence of God; Theory of Causation; Atomistic Theory of Creation.
Samkhya: Prakrti; Purusa; Causation; Liberation
Yoga: Citta; Cittavrtti; Klesas; Samadhi; Kaivalya.
Mimamsa: Theory of Knowledge
Schools of Vedânta: Brahman; Iuvara; Atman; Jiva; Jagat; Maya; Avidya; Adhyasa; Moksa; Aprthaksiddhi; Pancavidhabheda
Aurobindo: Evolution, Involution; Integral Yoga.

Socio-Political Philosophy
Social and Political Ideals: Equality, Justice, Liberty.
Sovereignty: Austin, Bodin, Laski, Kautilya.
Individual and State: Rights; Duties and Accountability
Forms of Government: Monarchy; Theocracy and Democracy.
Political Ideologies: Anarchism; Marxism and Socialism
Humanism; Secularism; Multiculturalism.
Crime and Punishment: Corruption, Mass Violence, Genocide, Capital Punishment.
Development and Social Progress.
Gender Discrimination: Female Foeticide, Land, and Property Rights; empowerment.
Caste Discrimination: Gandhi and Ambedkar

Philosophy of Religion:
Notions of God: Attributes; Relation to Man and the World. (Indian and Western).
Proofs for the Existence of God and their Critique (Indian and Western).
The Problem of Evil.
Soul: Immortality; Rebirth and Liberation.
Reason, Revelation, and Faith.
Religious Experience: Nature and Object (Indian and Western).
Religion without God.
Religion and Morality.
Religious Pluralism and the Problem of Absolute Truth.
Nature of Religious Language: Analogical and Symbolic; Cognitivist and Non- cognitive.

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